The major findings of this analysis include the following seven points. The proportion of culms seemed to increase with elevation (Fig. YT (the summit: 36°00′N, 138°22′E), situated in the eastern part of Nagano Prefecture, is 15 km wide and 25 km long. The proportion of grasses in YT 2 samples (49.5%) was higher than that in YT 1 samples (15.4%, Kruskal–Wallis test, χ2 = 21.263, p = 0.000; Steel–Dwass test, t2 = –3.780, p = 0.000), but the proportions in YT 2 and YT 3 samples (56.4%) were not significantly different (χ2 = –2.041, p = 0.103). They eat what is easily accessible. Other common foods of sika deer include poison ivy, catbrier, and marshgrass. 5 (Supplementary material Appendix 1 Table A2). A study on bighorn sheep Ovis canadensis in southeastern Canadian Cordillera showed that plants at higher zones were more digestible and contained more protein, phosphorous and cellulose than plants at lower elevations (Johnston et al. Our results seem to support these former studies. The sika deer is a small, brown elk introduced from Asia that lives in quiet marshes and forested wetlands on the lower Eastern Shore of Maryland. As a result they seem to do very well finding enough to survive on. Sika deer are primarily found on Maryland’s lower Eastern Shore. Bayberry, catbrier, and poison ivy are a few of the preferred food choices. 2004, Sakuragi et al. In her fragile and panic-stricken state, Kristen was no longer so enthusiastic about feeding the sika deer of Nara deer park! Location map of Mt Yatsugatake (YT) and the Japanese South Alps (SA). 6) Dwarf pine abundantly grew at the alpine zones (YT 3, SA 3), but coniferous leaves accounted only less than 2% (in August, 1.4% at SA 3, 0.4% at SA 3; in November, 1/8% at YT 3, 0.3% at SA 3) in the deer feces. The proportion of grasses in YT 2 samples (47.3%) was significantly higher than that in YT 1 samples (22.7%, Kruskal–Wallis test, χ2 = 18.324, p = 0.000; Steel–Dwass test, t2 = –3.275, p = 0.003), but there was no significant difference between YT 2 and YT 3 samples (54.1%; t2 = –1.471, p = 0.305). More than 200 points were counted for each sample (YT: 200 ± 1, range: 200–203 counts, SA: 200 ± 1, range: 200–203). Previously found from northern Vietnam in the south to the Russian Far East in the north, it is now uncommon except in Japan, where the species is overabundant. Sika deer may be quite small- to medium-sized, depending on the region where they live and the food sources they have available. While many subspecies are in danger, the species as a whole is thriving, with numerous introduced populations in the British Isles, New Zealand, and the United States. Regarding culms, the proportion tended to be greater at higher elevations zones (Fig. Members of Bernina Alpine Club supported techniques of mountaineering. Sike deer have a varied diet, which they adapt to their environment. PS between 10 samples at YT and 10 samples at SA were calculated and 100 PSs were obtained at each vegetational zone. There have been two case studies on the variation in sika deer diet with elevation. At SA 1, only fiber content decreased from August to November (Kruskal–Wallis test, χ2 = 13.553, p = 0.001; Steel–Dwass test, t2 = 2.839, p = 0.013) and increased from November to March (t2 = –3.027, p = 0.007). Since fiber in the feces indicates less digestible twigs of woody plants and stems of forbs, it is difficult to interpret the fecal compositions by food availability. This functionality is provided solely for your convenience and is in no way intended to replace human translation. These coniferous trees were densely planted, and prevented understory growth (Takatsuki 1990a), which resulted in a low carrying capacity of the deer. Radiotelemetry studies on deer movements in central Japan showed that some deer that wintered in the lower areas ascended mountains in early summer, and stayed at the subalpine and alpine zones (Izumiyama and Mochizuki 2008, Izumiyama et al. The proportion of monocots was greater in YT 3 samples than YT 1 samples (Kruskal–Wallis test, χ2 = 5.647, p = 0.059; Steel–Dwass test, t2 = –2.402, p = 0.043) but there were not significant differences between YT 1 and YT 2 (t2 = –1.601, p = 0.245) and YT 2 and YT 3 (t2 = –0.164, p = 0.985). We analyzed sika deer fecal samples from Mt Yatsugatake (YT) and the Japanese South Alps (SA). The fecal protein content was higher in SA 1 samples (U = 82.5, p = 0.004) and SA 3 samples (U = 66.0, p = 0.001) collected in August than in November, but was higher in November than August for the SA 2 samples (U = 90.0, p = 0.003). For the SA samples obtained in August, no significant difference was found between SA 1 and SA 2 samples (Kruskal–Wallis test, χ2 = 29.375, p = 0.000; Steel–Dwass test, t2 = 0.292, p = 0.954), but SA 3 samples had significantly higher crude protein than SA 2 samples (t2 = 6.480, p = 0.000). 7) Crude protein contents were higher at higher vegetational zones (Fig. In summary, dwarf bamboo was abundant in YT 1 samples and grasses were abundant in samples obtained at higher elevation in August. The proportion of culms was not different between SA 1 (25.6%) and SA 2 samples (25.0%, Kruskal–Wallis test, χ2 = 1.235, p = 0.539; Steel–Dwass test, t2 = 0.416, p = 0.909), but SA 2 samples had significantly more culms than SA 3 samples (10.0%, t2 = 2.837, p = 0.013). A sika deer's diet can include marsh grasses, fallen leaves, trees, brushy vegetation, herbs, fungi, myrtle bushes, ground ferns, poison ivy, soybeans and corn. They were first introduced in the Chesapeake Bay watershed on James Island in Dorchester County, Maryland, in 1916. Since little is known regarding the effects of deer grazing in the alpine zone of central Japan (but see Nagaike 2012, Watanabe et al. Sika deer are known to feed most frequently on trees, shrubs, grasses, sedges, holly, conifers, fungi, acorns, bark, heather, and ivy. Views of the sampling sites of deer feces at the montane zone (YT 1, SA 1), the sub-alpine zone (YT 2, SA 2) and the alpine zone (YT 3, SA 3) of Mt Yatsugatake (YT 1–YT 3) and the Japanese South Alps (SA 1–SA 3). 1). Sika deer consumed the same resources that comprised 78% of white-tailed deer diet. 3.0, 2018). The water content was determined using the atmospheric pressure drying method (135°C for 2 h). This study is the first to quantify and compare the diets of sika deer in lower montane, subalpine and alpine zones of YT and the SA. In SA 3 samples, only fiber decreased from August to November (U = 2.728, p = 0.006). The fecal protein content at YT 1 was significantly higher in November than in August (Mann–Whitney test, U = 21.0, p = 0.000; Supplementary material Appendix 1 Table A2), but no seasonal difference was found in YT 2 samples (U = 94.0, p = 0.200) or YT 3 samples (U = 106.0, p = 0.075). Most sika deer breed in their second year, but about one-quarter breed in their first year. Sika deer also have a dark stripe down their back from head to tail, which the white-tailed deer lack. Contact, Password Requirements: Minimum 8 characters, must include as least one uppercase, one lowercase letter, and one number or permitted symbol, Access Institutional Sign In via Shibboleth or OpenAthens, Differences in the fecal compositions by vegetational zones, 1) Comparisons by different vegetational zones, Supplementary material Appendix 1 Table A1, Supplementary material Appendix 1 Table A2, www.env.go.jp/nature/choju/docs/docs4/menkyo.pdf, www.wildlifebiology.org/appendix/wlb-00710. Although they are called deer, sika deer are actually a member of the elk family. Again, additional studies are needed to quantitatively compare the proportion of pine in habitats, foraging patches and feces to determine if deer avoid this conifer. The proportions of grasses in SA 1 (23.5%) and SA 2 samples (33.2%, Kruskal–Wallis test, χ2 = 11.404, p = 0.003; Steel–Dwass test, t2 = –2.080, p = 0.094), and those in SA 2 and SA 3 samples (38.3%, t2 = –0.984, p = 0.587) were not different, although the proportion in SA 3 samples was significantly higher than in SA 1 samples (t2 = –3.413, p = 0.002). Sika deer have a white rump and white spots on their back. However, some have been known to live up to 25 years in captivity. Only fiber content increased from August to November in YT 3 samples (U = 11.0, p = 0.003). 2016) and soil erosion (Yamada and Takatsuki 2015) through vegetational changes. Diet: Sika deer primarily feed at dusk through dawn on marsh vegetation, grasses and agricultural crops such as corn and soybeans. 3), but only the difference between YT 2 (19.6%) and YT 1 samples was significant (10.4%, t2 = –3.105, p = 0.005). Sika deer are a medium to large sized deer that stand at around 0.70 to 0.95m tall at the shoulder for males (stags) and 0.50 to 0.70m for females (hinds). 2012, Hashimoto and Fujiki 2014, Masuzawa 2015), and soil erosion has also been accelerated (Chubu Forest Management Office 2007). Their effects on the alpine plants are large: many alpine forbs have shown a decline, while unpalatable forbs, such as Ligularia dentata, Senecio cannabifolius and Artemisia sinanensis thrive (Takatsuki 1989b, Watanabe et al. Sika deer prefer to live in wetlands and forested marshes with dense undergrowth. Error bars indicate SD. Since the crude protein content of sika deer feces is relative to that within their rumen (Watanabe and Takatsuki 1993), we used fecal crude protein as an index for food quality. This might be due to the calm nature of sitka deer which make them popular pets for a deer species. A. Ohtsu and S. Yamamoto helped the analysis. Brandishing a brightly flushed face and leaving her dignity at the door, Kristen managed to find a gap and charged her way through like a blocker to the end zone. There was a higher proportion of dwarf bamboo (41.2%) in YT 1 than YT 2 (0.2%, Mann–Whitney test, U = 0, p = 0.000). A male sika deer will mate with multiple females over a breeding season, gathering as many as 12 females on his territory each year. 2012), mammals (Seki and Koganezawa 2012), insects (Iida et al. Marsh grasses, fallen leaves, trees, brushy vegetation, herbs, fungi, ground ferns, poison ivy, soybeans and corn. The rumen contents of sika deer (Cervus nippon Temminck) on the Boso Peninsula, central Japan, were analyzed to identify local, sexual and age‐specific differences in food habits.Graminoids and woody plants were the primary foods throughout the year. Since only Siberian dwarf pine Pinus pumila shrubs and alpine meadows dominated by Calamagrostis hakonensis, Veratrum album and Potentilla matsumurae grew in the alpine zones (Chubu Forest Management Office 2010), the landscape is open, which is less preferred by sika deer (Takatsuki 1989b). Crude protein content in sika deer feces collected from Mt Yatsugatake (YT 1–3) and the Japanese South Alps (SA 1–3) in August and November 2011. (Photo by Will Parson/Chesapeake Bay Program), A sika deer feeds on underwater grasses near the Chesapeake Bay Foundation’s Karen Noonan Center in Dorchester County, Md., on Aug. 2, 2017. 2), with a coniferous Abies veitchii–Abies mariesi forest at SA 2 in the subalpine zone, and dwarf pine shrubs and alpine meadows at SA 3 in the alpine zone (Chubu Forest Management Office 2007). This suggests that a decrease in snow induced by global warming may trigger sika deer expansion further into alpine zones. Sika deer, the graceful spotted deer of Japanese and Chinese art, originally were native to Asia from far-east Russia to Vietnam to the islands of Japan and Taiwan. Through statistical methods, they determined that the "best pets" outside of dogs, cats, and other conventional pets are the sika deer, agile wallaby, Tamar wallaby, llama, and Asian palm civet. Sika deer Cervus nippon populations have been increasing on the Japanese archipelago. The food habits of Sika deer (Cervus nippon) on Mt. On average, sika deer live 15 to 18 years in the wild. The sika deer has no natural predators in the Chesapeake Bay watershed, but humans will often hunt them for their meat. 4) Our qualitative observations of habitats indicated that grasses were abundant in the alpine zone (Fig. The Sika Deer feeds on a variety of woodland plants and grasses. In winter, the use of evergreen broad leaves increased. * p < 0.05, ** p < 0.01, *** p < 0.001, NS: not significant. Proportions of the major foods in sika deer feces obtained from the montane (YT 1, SA 1), the middle subalpine (YT 2, SA 2) and the alpine zones (YT 3, SA 3) in Mt Yatsugatake (YT 1–3) and the Japanese South Alps (SA 1–3). Since ruminants often face protein deficiency (Robbins 1992), high-protein plants are nutritionally valuable and the alpine zone is likely advantageous for sika deer in terms of forage quality. The brown algae are rich in both nutrients and salts. However, the proportions in the feces were small (in August, 4.1% at YT 2, 2.7% at SA 2; in November, 2.5% at YT 2, 1.8% at SA 2), suggesting that conifers were not an important food source regardless of their abundance. In the presence of sika deer, white-tailed deer displayed an increased niche breadth (108%) and a lower diet quality (17%). The mother nurses her newborn calf for up to 10 months on increasingly fatty milk. We collected sika deer fecal pellets from three vegetational zones: the montane zone (YT 1, SA 1), the subalpine zone (YT 2, SA 2) and the alpine zone (YT 3, SA 3) in YT and SA (Table 1) in August and November 2011, and in March 2012. Since the alpine zones in central Japan have not yet been inhabited by deer until the late 1990s, no study has been done on the food habits of alpine sika deer. Fecal samples of sika deer were collected from the low montane (YT 1, SA 1), the subalpine (YT 2, SA 2) and the alpine zones (YT 3, SA 3). However, the deer’s dependence on snacks given to them by tourists has been impacted by recent response to concerns over the coronavirus outbreak. This study has demonstrated the value of fecal analysis which can be compared to plant abundance within habitat to test for dietary preferences in the future. YT 1: Sasa borealis, a dwarf bamboo, was abundant, YT 2: undergrowth was poor, YT 3: Siberian dwarf pine shrubs were dominant, SA 1: forbs and browses grew, SA 2: understory was poor, SA 3: Siberian dwarf pine shrubs and alpine meadow grew. However, during the intense Alaskan winters, they also feed on woody vegetation and lichens. Another likely factor is the decline in hunting pressure, which has decreased over the last three decades and may minimize the avoidance of open alpine zones by sika deer (Takatsuki 1989a). Literature Cited Kurt, F. 1990. Sika deer show a north–south variation in diet, from northern grazing populations to southern browsing populations . When alarmed, adult males emit a distinctive, high-pitched “bark" to alert others to danger. Cervus (Latin) a stag, deer. Sika deer are similar to Fallow deer in coat colour. In central Japan, they inhabit subalpine and alpine zones from June to November, and then descend to lower elevations during the winter (Izumiyama and Mochizuki 2008, Izumiyama et al. The sika deer (Cervus nippon) also known as the spotted deer or the Japanese deer, is a species of deer native to much of East Asia and introduced to other parts of the world. (2014) analyzed the factors associated with this phenomenon and showed that the range expansion occurred in areas with less snow. Predators Wolf, black and brown bears. 2). Privacy Policy, Chesapeake Bay Program * p < 0.05, ** p < 0.01, *** p < 0.001. The vegetation is a deciduous broadleaved forest at SA 1 in the montane zone (SA 1, Fig. SA (the summit: 35°45′N, 138°14′E) is situated in the southeastern part of Nagano Prefecture, bordering the Yamanashi and Shizuoka Prefectures (Fig. The sika deer is a small, brown elk introduced from Asia that lives in quiet marshes and forested wetlands on the lower Eastern Shore of Maryland. They vary from pale yellow/brown through to red/brown with white spots in the summer months to dark grey and black in the winter. 2012), the results of this study are important for future alpine deer management. Sika deer not only excert effects on plants but also on abundance of birds (Okuda et al. Axis Deer. There was significantly less fiber in SA 3 samples (9.1%) than SA 1 samples (11.9%, Kruskal–Wallis test, χ2 = 4.751, p = 0.093; Steel–Dwass test, t2 = 2.431, p = 0.040). There were more dicots in SA 2 samples (25.0%) than SA 3 samples (10.4%, t2 = 2.837, p = 0.013). Statistical standard (α) was set at 0.05. There is often a … and Acer spp., and both deer showed strong selectivity for E. verrucosus, E. alatus and Populus davidiana (EI>0.85) in spite of their low availability. 2000, Igota et al. 2008). A sika deer's diet can include marsh grasses, fallen leaves, trees, brushy vegetation, herbs, fungi, myrtle bushes, ground ferns, poison ivy, soybeans and corn. Another study on Yakushima Island, southern Japan, found that sika deer at low elevation ate more dicot leaves, while those in the alpine zone mainly ate Pseudosasa owatarii bamboo (Takatsuki 1990b). The vegetation of YT is a primarily Betula ermanii- and Larix kaempferi-dominated forest with Sasa borealis, a dwarf bamboo, in the understory at YT 1 in the montane zone (Fig. 2009). Samples at YT 3 did not contain dwarf bamboo. Red deer is the most widespread species, and is also the most commonly farmed deer. Sampling sites of sika deer feces in Mt Yatsugatake (YT 1–3) and the Japanese South Alps (SA 1–3). Fecal composition in three vegetational zones was compared between August and November at YT and SA (Supplementary material Appendix 1 Table A1). Sika is Japanese for a small deer. A related deer is the wapiti, which occurs in northern Fiordland. Less proportion of fiber at YT 1 may reflect the high abundance of dwarf bamboos at this site which is missing at SA 1 or relatively less woody plants there. There was a small proportion of monocots in samples from all zones, and the values were not significantly different between the zones, except between YT 1 (0.4%) and YT 2 (5.6%, Kruskal–Wallis test, χ2 = 54.529, p = 0.001; Steel–Dwass test, t2 = –3.732, p = 0.001). Any meat can taste good if cooked correctly. 2011, Tamura 2013). Get the latest updates on our work delivered to your inbox. While they reside in the Bay watershed year round, the sika deer’s summer range is generally larger than its winter range. 5). Appendix 1. 2004). Tel: (800) YOUR-BAY (968-7229) Create a new folder below. To access this item, please sign in to your personal account. The above changes were not consistent among sites; for example, fiber increased in samples obtained from two YT sites from August to November, but decreased in those collected from two SA sites. Yasunori Kagamiuchi, Seiki Takatsuki "Diets of sika deer invading Mt Yatsugatake and the Japanese South Alps in the alpine zone of central Japan," Wildlife Biology, 2020(3), (19 August 2020), Registered users receive a variety of benefits including the ability to customize email alerts, create favorite journals list, and save searches. Sika deer are native to Japan, Taiwan and eastern Asia, and were introduced into the Chesapeake Bay watershed in 1916. Additional Information: One would be hard-pressed to find information on Ohio’s introduced Sika Deer population. 3). For example, wapiti C. elaphus canadensis in Alberta, Canada, migrated to the alpine zone to forage on high-protein plants (Morgantini and Hudson 1989, Hebblewhite et al. The deer cause vegetational changes and land degradation (Chubu Forest Management Office 2007, 2008, 2010, Nagaike 2012, Masuzawa 2015). He released 5 or 6 deer onto James Island over a century ago, which eventually led to the proliferation of the species in the United States. They are spotted as both fawns and adults (in summer), whereas white-tails are spotted only as fawns. The Chesapeake Bay Program is a unique regional partnership that has led and directed the restoration of the Chesapeake Bay since 1983. We chose Mt Yatsugatake (YT) and the Japan South Alps (SA) as the study sites (Fig. Males usually weigh about 90 pounds, while females usually weigh about 70 pounds. In SA 2 samples, grasses (Mann–Whitney test, U = 1.965, p = 0.049) and monocots (U = 2.116, p = 0.034) decreased while dicots (U = 3.479, p = 0.001) and culms (U = 3.712, p < 0.001) increased. Translations are not retained in our system. Of course, feeding deer during the winter is more of a challenge. Your use of this feature and the translations is subject to all use restrictions contained in the Terms and Conditions of Use of the BioOne website. Mating & Reproduction in Sika Deer In Europe the breeding season or rut for Cervus nippon takes place between September and November. Sike deer have a varied diet, which they adapt to their environment. Sitka deer have no upper incisors, and digest vegetation through grinding plant material between their upper and lower molars. A male Sika deer’s antlers generally have three to four points or tines, though the more mature and dominant stags have more. Sika deer primarily use vigilance to protect themselves from predators, often fleeing when threatened. This content is available for download via your institution's subscription. The sika deer, like other species, are herbivore – or more precisely, folivore – depending on plant matters for food, including leaves, roots, tubers, soft wood, bark, stems, seeds, grains, fruits, and nuts. The PS values were significantly different between the lower elevation montane zone (YT 1, SA 1) and the subalpine zones (YT 2, SA 2) (August: Kruskal–Wallis test, χ2 = 210.134, p = 0.000; Steel–Dwass test, t2 = –11.895, p = 0.000; November: Kruskal–Wallis test, χ2 = 156.252, p = 0.000; Steel–Dwass test, t2 = –3.184, p = 0.004) and the subalpine and the higher elevation alpine zones (YT 3, SA 3) (August: Steel–Dwass test, t2 = –5.837, p = 0.000, November: Steel–Dwass test, t2 = –10.244, p = 0.000). Some populations of sika deer are seasonal migrants (Takatsuki et al. akaishimontanum. 2009, Takii et al. Diet Sitka deer primarily eat green vegetation. You will have access to both the presentation and article (if available). The sika deer varies in color from reddish-brown in the summer to dark brown or black in the winter. Since vegetation differs with elevation, it is expected that the food habits of sika deer would also differ by vegetational zone. They also were introduced to Europe, North You have requested a machine translation of selected content from our databases. Food: Sika Deer eat vegetation. Browse is more important in winter. It took 7 days and 8 days for collection at YT and SA, respectively. I had sika … In the last three decades, sika deer Cervus nippon populations have been increasing and expanding their range in Japan (Nakajima 2007), thus exerting an impact on vegetation (Akashi and Terazawa 2005, Ohashi et al. 3), but the difference was not significant (YT 1–YT 2: Kruskal–Wallis test, χ2 = 3.888, p = 0.143; Steel–Dwass test, t2 = –1.022, p = 0.563, YT 1–YT 3: t2 = –1.967, p = 0.121, YT 2–YT 3: t2 = 0.910, p = 0.634). Fallow deer were introduced from 1860 and are now found in many low-altitude forests, partly the result of farm escapes. The mean temperature ranges from –1.6°C in February to 22.5°C in August, and the mean annual precipitation is 1499 mm at Minami-arupusu Town at a foothill of SA. The principal winter food items of red and sika deer were Euonymus spp. Fax: (410) 267-5777, © 2021 Chesapeake Bay Program All Rights Reserved During the warmer months they eat nuts, corn and acorns -- and a lot more green matter. Funding – This study was partly supported by Natural Parks Foundation (Volunteer Fund for Nature Conservation 2011). 3) Understories were dominated by conifers like Tsuga and Abies at YT2 and SA 2. The crude protein contents of deer feces obtained from different vegetational zones and seasons are shown in Fig. However, their antlers and sharp hooves can also be used in defense. Although differences in sika deer diet by vegetational zones have been studied previously (Takatsuki 1983, 1990b, 2009a), the alpine zone in central Japan has been inhabited by sika deer only for the last two decades and had not been studied until now. Fecal pellets (n = 10) were dried at 65°C for 24 h and milled. The March collection was only possible at low elevations (YT 1 and SA 1) because snow was present at higher elevations (YT 2, 3, SA 2, 3). Females usually live in small groups with their young. The estimated deer density at YT in 2015 was 50 deer km–2 from pellet counts (Nagano Prefecture 2016), which was 2–3 times higher than in 2005 (Yamanashi Prefecture 2017). Despite these negative environmental factors, the alpine zone seems to provide high-quality forage. In subalpine zones in YT, grasses are an important food item, comprising about 50% of the samples. Food Habits. When fully grown stags weigh between 40 to 70kg and hinds 30 to 45kgs. Since ruminants are often protein-deficient (Robbins 1992), the protein content of forage is important. The fresh kelp is a crucial supplement to the Sika’s diet, and they are willing to risk the dangers they could encounter here. In the wintertime food is significantly harder to find, and deer eat a lot of buds, bark and shoots then. The composition similarity of the deer fecal samples in each vegetational zone was compared between YT and SA by Whittaker's percentage similarity (PS, Whittaker 1952). The proportion of dicots in SA 1 samples (22.8%) was greater than that in SA 2 samples (6.8%, Kruskal–Wallis test, χ2 = 14.400, p = 0.000; Steel–Dwass test, t2 = 3.554, p = 0.001); the proportion of dicots in SA 3 samples (12.3%) was significantly greater than that in SA 2 samples (6.8%, t2 = –2.385, p = 0.045). Crude protein contents were higher at higher zones (15–20%) than at lower zones (8–12%) in both study areas. Please note that a BioOne web account does not automatically grant access to full-text content. Error bars indicate SD. The principal winter food items of red and sika deer were Euonymus spp. One study in Omote-Nikko showed that the proportion of dwarf bamboo Sasa nipponica in sika diets varied with elevation (Takatsuki 1983). Dicot content decreased in samples obtained at higher elevation and dicots were significantly more abundant in YT 1 (15.6%) than YT 3 samples (10.1%, Kruskal–Wallis test, χ2 = 3.378, p = 0.025; Steel–Dwass test, t2 = –2.574, p = 0.027). 3). 4). 3), but significant difference was found only between YT 1 and YT 3 (Kruskal–Wallis test, χ2 = 6.636, p = 0.036; Steel–Dwass test, t2 = –2.575, p = 0.027) and others were not significantly different (YT 1–YT 2: t2 = –1.853, p = 0.153, YT 2–YT 3: t2 = 0.379, p = 0.924). Some of the common types of food that they are known to eat include grass, leaves, shoots, and twigs. The estimated deer density of SA in 2015 was 13 deer km–2 from pellet counts (Nagano Prefecture 2016), which was three times higher than in 2005 (Yamanashi Prefecture 2017). Goyo, northern Honshu (the main island of Japan), were studied.Among 88 plant species found in surveys, 36 species (40.9%) were eaten by the deer. 2007, Takatsuki 2009a, Otsu et al. The proportions of coniferous leaves in the feces were more at these subalpine sites than at other vegetational zones. Dicots increased in YT 1 and SA 2 samples from August to November, but did not change at other sites. Additional studies are needed to quantitatively compare the proportion of grasses in habitats, foraging patches and feces to determine if deer are selective for grasses. Females may associate with several males in order to gain access to a variety of feeding grounds. There was relatively more fiber in SA samples, but the values declined with elevation although difference was not significant among the sites (Kruskal–Wallis test, χ2 = 4.555, p = 0.103; SA 1–SA 2: Steel–Dwass test, t2 = –2.847, p = 0.012; SA 1–SA 3: t2 = –1.444, p = 0.318, SA 2–SA 3: t2 = –1.627, p = 0.234, Fig. With many people avoiding large public gathering spaces such as parks, as well as a drop in tourism in general, the deer are now desperately traveling further away from the park in search of food. The sika deer is regarded as sacred in Japan. Percent similarities (PS) of sika deer fecal sample compositions between Mt Yatsugatake (YT) and the Japanese South Alps (SA), collected from different vegetational zones in August (light) and November (dark) 2011. Deer are herbivores and generally eat grass, nuts, twigs, alfalfa, corn, fruit, and fungi. The proportion of dicots in the samples obtained at high elevation seemed to be greater than those at low elevation in YT (Fig. Sika deer are smaller than Virginia’s white-tailed deer, being a medium-sized member of the deer family. The mean temperature in November at the foothill of YT ranges from –0.1°C in February to 24.8°C in August, and the mean annual precipitation is 1440 mm. Plant fragments were spread over a glass slide (1 mm grid size) and categorized into 11 groups: dwarf bamboo, grasses, sedges, other monocots, dicots, coniferous leaves, dicots, ferns, culms and sheaths, fiber, fruits and seeds, and others. In August, the mean proportion of dwarf bamboo in YT 1 samples was 55.4%, which was significantly greater than in YT 2 samples (0.1%; Kruskal–Wallis test, χ2 = 23.079, p = 0.000; Steel–Dwass test, t2 = 3.963, p = 0.000) and YT 3 samples (0.2%; t2 = 3.862, p = 0.000; Fig. Males have narrow antlers and a dark, shaggy mane on the neck. An institutional or society member subscription is required to view non-Open Access content. Fecal samples were washed over a 0.5 mm aperture sieve, and the remaining material was microscopically analyzed using the point-frame method (Chamrad and Box 1964, Takatsuki 1978). Sika Deer in Maryland have Clement Henry to thank for their presence in the coastal state. Sika, rusa and sambar populations occur only in the North Island. An average adult man in Britain is 1.77m high and weighs 79kg bark '' to alert others to.... The elk family in their first year and lichens typically in forested areas or open field using a method! Excert effects on plants but also on abundance of birds ( Okuda et al an important constituent the. The use of evergreen broad leaves increased populations occur only in the coastal.! And snow may become cold even in summer ), mammals ( and. Pets for a deer species: one would be hard-pressed to find Information on ’. 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