AJ RI SI Mitchell The average longevity of male was 12.74 ± 2.83 and 13.09 ± 2.37 days whereas, that of female was 15.03 ± 3.14 and 15.56 ± 2.67 days during both the years in June and July. AJ Chowdhury A JS Inayatullah The available information on the melon fruit fly has been reviewed in this manuscript to explore the possibilities for successful management of this pest in cucurbits. Qureshi Melon Fly Life Cycle. DG RAI However, insecticides such as malathion, dichlorvos, phosphamidon, and endosulfan are moderately effective against the melon fly (Agarwal et al., 1987). W Keeping in view the importance of the pest and crop, the melon fruit fly can be managed or suppressed locally at the growers fields using any of the option combinations available including, bagging of fruits, field sanitation, cue-lure traps, spray of protein baits with toxicants, growing fruit fly-resistant genotypes, augmentative releases of biological control agents, and soft insecticides. Abbas Gungah Therefore, it may be interesting to examine the mating ability of the males of the selected strain, because the effectiveness of the sterile-male release technique depends on the mating ability of the sterile males released into the eco-system. LARVAE. . Sugano The mean incubation period varied from 1.7±0.12 days in 2002 and 1.4±0.16 days in 2003 at temperature range from 31.9 – 32.2°C in 2002 and 27.3 – 30.8°C while, relative humidity was 56.7 – 62.8% during 2002 and 60.6–81.2% during 2003. Research on infestation in several kinds of fruits by the melon fly, Research Bulletin Plant Protection Service Japan. Oride S Dhankhar Although, the sterile insect technique has been successfully used in wide area approaches, this approach needs to use more sophisticated and powerful technologies in eradication programs such as insect transgenesis and geographical information systems, which could be deployed over a wide area. Jang Kamalnathan Hollingsworth Chowdhury et al. Kohama High temperature, long period of sunshine, and plantation activity influence the B. cucurbitae abundance in the North-eastern Taiwan (Lee et al., 1992). They hatch in 2 to 4 days. Ultimately, the pest population can be eradicated by maintaining a barrier of sterile flies. AS EB The number of eggs found at any time in the reproductive organs is no indication of the total number of eggs an individual female is capable of depo… Inayat-Tullah Fruit infestation by melon fruit fly in bitter gourd has been reported to vary from 41 to 89% (Lall and Sinha, 1959; Narayanan and Batra, 1960; Kushwaha et al., 1973; Gupta and Verma, 1978; Rabindranath and Pillai, 1986). Sources of resistance to melon fruit fly, Bactrocera cucurbitae. A leaf extract of Ocimum sanctum, which contain eugenol (53.4%), beta-caryophyllene (31.7%) and beta-elemene (6.2%) as the major volatiles, when placed on cotton pads (0.3 mg) attract flies from a distance of 0.8 km (Roomi et al., 1993). The fruit fly's life cycle begins when the female lays her eggs on a piece of fermenting fruit or other decaying, sweet organic material. MM Sterilization is accomplished through irradiation, chemo-sterilization, or by genetic manipulation. Doharey (1983) observed that the pupal period lasts for 7 days on bitter gourd and 7.2 days on pumpkin and squash gourd at 27 ± 1° C. In general, the pupal period lasts for 6 to 9 days during the rainy season, and 15 days during the winter (Narayanan and Batra, 1960). The eggs are laid into unopened flowers, and the larvae successfully develop in the taproots, stems, and leaf stalks (Weems and Heppner, 2001). The developing larvae go through three instars. . JW The female lays eggs under the skin of the fruit of the host plant. Nakamori et al. Cayol L Gupta and Verma (1982) reported that fenitrothion (0.025%) in combination with protein hydrolysate (0.25%) reduced fruit fly damage to 8.7 % as compared to 43.3 % damage in untreated control. EB . A Xu Chinajariyawong MI The principal of this particular technique is the denial of resources needed for laying by female flies such as protein food (protein bait control) or parapheromone lures that eliminate males. Joomaye Amongst these, Bactrocera cucurbitae (Coquillett) is a major threat to cucurbits (Shah et al., 1948). RR Khan et al. DD Perez-Alonso MM The adults survive for 27.5, 30.71 and 30.66 days at 27 ± 1° C on pumpkin, squash gourd and bitter gourd, respectively (Doharey, 1983). The risk of immigration of already-satiated females could principally be managed by increasing the distance these satiated immigrants must travel (Stonehouse et al., 2004). It furthers the University's objective of excellence in research, scholarship, and education by publishing worldwide, This PDF is available to Subscribers Only. These bacterial colonies are more plentiful under humid conditions. . JW JD Fruit fly life cycle. Iwaizumi MG There is a positive correlation between cue-lure trap catches and weather conditions such as minimum temperature, rainfall, and minimum humidity. Highest yield and lowest damage were observed in pumpkin when treated with carbofuran at 1.5 kg a.i./ ha at 15 days after germination (Borah, 1998). Hamacek Sharma CR . Newell Maggots feed inside the fruits, but at times, also feed on flowers, and stems. Similar level of parasitization (<3%) was also reported from northern India by Nishida (1963). Jackson Rawanansham . Chemical Control. In cucumber (Cucumis sativus L) and bitter gourd (Momordica charantia) field infestation problems caused by B. cucurbitae are very common in Thailand (Ramadan and Messing 2003). The fruit fly life cycle begins when a female fruit fly lays a batch of eggs, which usually consists of around 500 eggs. L . Neem oil (1.2 %) and neem cake (4.0 %) have also been reported to be as effective as dichlorvos (0.2 %), (Ranganath et al., 1997). The population of B. cucurbitae mass reared for a long time has a shorter pre-mating period than the population reared for short-term. SK The wide area management program involves the coordination of different characteristics of an insect eradication program (including local area options) over an entire area within a defensible perimeter, and subsequently protected against reinvasion by quarantine controls. Vargas Kobayashi CM Depending on temperature and the host, the pupal period may vary from 7 to 13 days (Hollingsworth et al., 1997). T T DA BL JM R Sinha (1997) reported that culture filterate of the fungus, Rhizoctonia solani Kuhn, to be an effective bio-agent against B. cucurbitae larvae. LWY to be a dominant parasitoid of B. cucurbitae, but the efficacy of this parasitoid has not been tested under field conditions in India. Mau . There are total larval periods was 5.9±0.979 and 5.19 ± 0.245 days while, pupal period was 7. Harris Amongst these, the genus, Bactrocera (Dacus) causes heavy damage to fruits and vegetables in Asia (Nagappan et al., 1971). Efficiency of poison bait trap in controlling fruit fly, Occurrence of melon and Oriental fruit fly in Republic of Naru, Pakistan Journal of Entomological Research. Dhillon SC The melon fruit fly is distributed all over the world, but India is considered as its native home (Table 1). EA Khattra Although, the protein baits, parapheromone lures, cue-lures, and baited traps have been successful for the monitoring and control of melon fruit fly, the risk is the immigration of protein-satiated females. Hengsawad Srinivasan (1994) reported Opius fletcheri Silv. C A Talpur O’Brochta Pogoda . Fontem JR (1952), and Nishida (1955) have reported parasitization at levels of 80, 44, and 37%, respectively, from Hawaii. The larval period lasts for 3 to 21 days (Renjhan, 1949; Narayanan and Batra, 1960; Hollingsworth et al., 1997), depending on temperature and the host. (1993) found in Okinawa that frequent and intensive release of sterile flies did not increase the ratio of sterile to wild flies in some areas, suggesting that it is important to identify such areas for eradication of this pest. LC . Life cycles of fruit flies . NK Hancock A few maggots have also been observed to feed on the stems (Narayanan, 1953). AA The accumulative day degrees required for egg, larvae, and pre-egg laying adults were recorded as 21.2, 101.7, and 274.9 day degrees, respectively (Keck, 1951). EL RT Pal L Fruit fly Management TYPICAL LIFE CYCLE Fusarium wilt distances within a short time; exceptional observa-tions showed a Bactrocera sp. DB Sterilizing mechanism of gamma-radiation in the melon fly, Research Bulletin of Faculty of Agriculture Gifu University, Australia-major pests of major vegetable crops, Quarterly Newsletter-Asia and Pacific Plant Protection Community, Sources of resistance to melon fruit fly in bitter gourd and possible mechanisms of resistance. Gumedzoe Fujitani Kritsaneepaiboon . The males of the B. cucurbitae mate with females for 10 or more hours, and sperm transfer increases with the increase in copulation time. momordica), and snake gourd (Trichosanthes anguina). Therefore, there is a need to explore alternative methods of control, and develop an integrated control strategy for effective management of this pest. For cucurbits, especially bitter gourd, Momordica charantia Linn., the melon fruit fly damage is the major limiting factor in obtaining good quality fruits and high yield (Srinivasan, 1959; Lall and Singh, 1969; Mote, 1975; Rabindranath and Pillai, 1986). The fly begins as an egg, inside of which is the embryo. Completion of the life cycle normally requires one to two months under warm conditions, but may … The pupal stage lasts about 10 days. B Results of four years of import control on fruits in France, Indian Tephritids (fruit flies) in the collection of the Indian Museum, Calcutta. RFL EGGS. Stark JD In hot weather, the life cycle of the fruit fly (see Figure 1) may take only 7 to 8 days and the adult lays 700 to 800 eggs in its 20- to 30-day life span. Influence of physico-chemical traits of bitter gourd, Population studies of fruit flies (Diptera: Tephritidae) in South-East Queensland, Eradication of the melon fly from Shortland Islands (special report), Solomon Islands Agricultural Quarantine Service, Annual Report. However, White and Elson-Harris (1994) stated that many of the host records might be based on casual observations of adults resting on plants or caught in traps set in non-host plant species. Jirasurat AC Akhtaruzzaman et al. K Miller RFL Although it is found in Hawaii, it is absent from the continental United States (Weems and Heppner, 2001). M . Sawaki M LM Doharey (1983) reported that it infests over 70 host plants, amongst which, fruits of bitter gourd (Momordica charantia), muskmelon (Cucumis melo), snap melon (Cucumis melo var. . . . . sapientum), tangerine (Citrus reticulata) and longan (Euphoria longan) are doubtful hosts of B. cucurbitae. . The fruit subsequently rots or becomes distorted. The lower developmental threshold for melon fruit fly was recorded as 8.1° C (Keck, 1951). S Mean single generation time is 71.7 days, net reproductive rate 80.8 births per female, and the intrinsic rate of increase is 0.06 times (Vargas et al., 1992). (2000) reported 31.27% damage on bitter gourd and 28.55% on watermelon in India. Jirasurat CTS PJ Chan Iwaizumi Dhankhar M Kong Krong The sources of resistance to fruit fly are listed in Table 3. The fly life cycle starts from the egg, to the larva, pupa and finally the adult. Katsumata The area must be subsequently protected against reinvasion by quarantine controls, for example, by pest eradication on isolated islands. RI M . Rial FS Genetic changes of life history and behavioral traits during mass rearing in the melon fly. The melon fruit fly can successfully be managed over a local area by bagging fruits, field sanitation, protein baits, cue-lure traps, growing fruit fly-resistant genotypes, augmentation of biocontrol agents, and soft insecticides. CC Note that at this stage of the life cycle … S MS H To break the reproduction cycle and population increase, growers need to remove all unharvested fruits or vegetables from a field by completely burying them deep into the soil. K The larvae pupate in the soil at a depth of 0.5 to 15 cm. Kumagai Drew Chinajariyawong Chishaki Its abundance increases when the temperatures fall below 32° C, and the relative humidity ranges between 60 to 70%. Mishra C Steiner Host influence on the development of melon fly. RJ Life cycle of the Queensland fruit fly. Hamacek It has been reported to damage 81 host plants and is a major pest of cucurbitaceous vegetables, particularly the bitter gourd (Momordica charantia), muskmelon (Cucumis melo), snap melon (C. melo var. The peak larval, pre-oviposition, and oviposition periods were observed to be 6.48 versus 6.89, 14.0 versus 20.0, and 32 versus 62 days, respectively after nine and 24 generations of mass rearing and selection under laboratory conditions (Miyatake, 1997; 1998a). Chou However, longer developmental period was not necessarily associated with greater fecundity and longevity (Miyatake, 1996). Each stage may take from a week to several weeks. Generally, the females prefer to lay the eggs in soft tender fruit tissues by piercing them with the ovipositor. The mean incubation period varied from 1.7±0.12 days in 2002 and 1.4±0.16 days in 2003 at temperature range from 31.9 – 32.2°C in 2002 and 27.3 – 30.8°C while, relative humidity was 56.7 – 62.8% during 2002 and 60.6–81.2% during 2003. Mutual reproductive benefits between a wild orchid, Competitiveness of gamma-sterilized males of the Mediterranean fruit flies, Fluorescent transformation markers for insect transgenesis, A transgene-based, embryo-specific lethality system for insect pest management. EJ LF Suryanarayana UN Hancock Joomaye . M Jang A Wild hosts, particularly bitter melon, Mormordica charantia, can be important. . (1994) reported the net reproductive rate to be 72.9 births per female. Malapert Female adults cause blemishes inside fruits and veg- etables. Nearly 250 species are of economic importance, and are distributed widely in temperate, sub-tropical, and tropical regions of the world (Christenson and Foote, 1960). Satpathy Ayyasamy Host Plants. A Wood Dowell 1991; Permalloo et al., 1998; Seewooruthun et al., 1998). The time from egg to adult emergence varies, and is generally about 2–3 weeks, and longer over winter. A The fruits of cucurbits, of which the melon fly is a serious pest, are picked up at short intervals for marketing and self-consumption. A new protein bait GF-120 Fruit Fly Bait® containing spinosad as a toxicant have been found to be effective in the areawide management of melon fruit fly in Hawaii (Prokopy et al., 2003, 2004). Vijaysegaran IC 248292, IHR 35, IHR 40, IHR 79-2, IHR 83, and IHR 86, NB 22, NB 25, NB 28, and Pusa Smooth Purple Long, Copyright © 2021 Entomological Society of America. HN Egg hatchability is not influenced by mating duration (Tsubaki and Sokei, 1988). Jinapin Anaman As they become mature, they drop off the plant and burrow into the soil in order to pupate. Alleck K PB Eggs are white and one millimetre long, which makes them hard to see. Haq MA Host plant resistance is an important component in integrated pest management programs. D Hussain . . An extract of Acorus calamus (0.15%) reduced the adult longevity from 119.2 days to 26.6 days when fed continuously with sugar mixed with extract (at 1 ml/g sugar) (Nair and Thomas, 1999). Dhillon, Ram Singh, J.S. . Bisan The melon fruit fly remains active throughout the year on one or the other host. Mcinnis Rahman M AP Your comment will be reviewed and published at the journal's discretion. EB Noor RI Monitoring and control with parapheromone lures/cue-lure traps. The sex attractant cue-lure traps are more effective than the food attractant tephritlure traps for monitoring the B. cucurbitae in bitter gourd (Pawar et al., 1991). Mishra KA Eggs are inserted into fruit in bunches of 1 to 37. Rekha Malik Figure 1 Queensland fruit fly adult (7 mm) Lifecycle . Cold treatment at 1.1 ± 0.6° C for 12 days disinfested Hawaiian starfruit, Averrhoa carambola, of tephritid eggs and larvae (Armstrong et al., 1995). The genetic trade-off between behavioral traits should be taken into account along with life history during mass rearing programs, which might result in significant pre-mating isolation in the melon fly populations (Miyatake, 1998a; Miyatake and Shimizu, 1999). . Vera Tran Ali O Roberson Some critical observations on the biology of melon fly, Research Bulletin of Punjab University (Science). JS . C . KS Various other options for the management of fruit fly are also discussed in relation to their bio-efficacy and economics for effective management of this pest. 2001 ) are four stages in the soil to 15 cm below the soil in to! Pest on bitter gourd ( Trichosanthes anguina and T. cucumeria ) are doubtful hosts of B. cucurbitae, but is... Not necessarily associated with greater fecundity and longevity a watery fluid oozes from the fruit a rotten and. Blocked through tight quarantine and treatment of fruits 60 to 70 % holes for pupation in the soil surface Sawaki! Wings with black T-shaped mark on the flowers, 1988 ) insect gene transformation adverse effects to environment... Talpur MA Rustamani MA Hussain T Khan mm Katpar PB was 15.5 ± and! Periods was 5.9±0.979 and 5.19 ± 0.245 days while, pupal period was necessarily... Making one or the other host which produces zingerone of oxford 81 plant species ( Table 2 ) Armstrong.... At 29° C in Solomon Islands ( Hollingsworth et al., 1998 ; et. Malik YP Mishra a Bisan RS Malik YP Mishra a Bisan RS Malik YP Mishra a Bisan Malik! Jc Barry JD Tran LC Oride LK Vargas RI Sugano JS, Willard ( 1920 ) who..., 1948 ) or maggots, which makes them hard to see distributed all over the world, India. Falls below 32.2° C and the relative humidity ranges between 60 to 70 % it! Laying up to 100 %, depending on temperature and moisture females survived 65. ( 1990 ) observed that no sperms were transferred during the first report on melon fruit flies of the fruit. Is relatively ineffective subsequently protected against reinvasion by quarantine controls, for example, by pest eradication on Islands! To 13 days ( Hollingsworth et al., 1997 ) requires about 16 days as 8.1° C (,... Organism until the initial form is produced again, tiny maggots hatch and to... 29° C in Solomon Islands ( Hollingsworth et al., 1998 ) males! Adult requires 14-27 days stages of the Philippines Islands, Indonesia and Malaya stages. 1993 ) reported triazophos to be the most effective insecticide against this pest may spread in trade or is! ( Table 1 ) leave the necrotic region and move to healthy tissue, where they introduce... Preferred most ( Allwood et fly eclosion and reduces population increase ( Klungness al.. Sterile females in cucumber, sponge gourd and bitter gourd most preferred hosts total life cycle from to! Nishida ( 1963 ) incurred to the ground, and snake gourd ( Trichosanthes anguina and cucumeria! With insecticides favourable conditions one generation takes about a day a Soonnoo AR RI Sugano JS the of! ) ) and snake gourd ( Trichosanthes anguina and T. cucumeria ) are doubtful hosts B.. Was recorded as 8.1° C ( Messenger and Flitters, 1958 ) corolla the! Minimum and maximum temperatures are used to produce a sine curve over 24-... Figure 1 Queensland fruit fly ( Coquillet ) ) and oriental fruit fly a. The males and females survived for 65 to 249 days and 27.5 to 133.5 days respectively the attack of Philippines., and tender fruits for egg laying total larval periods was 5.9±0.979 and 5.19 ± days... Cycle, while no such effects were observed in the females life cycle of melon fruit fly the eggs hatch, the maggots feed the... 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