Eight US troops were killed and 51 more wounded in the bloody battle. A total of 465 Mahdi Army fighters have been confirmed killed in and around Sadr City since March 25. Santa Monica, CA: RAND Corporation, 2013. https://www.rand.org/pubs/research_reports/RR160.html. The concept of operation involved isolating an area of operations with concrete T-walls, providing access control. Muqtada al-Sadr had likely been planning the April 2008 offensive for months. The 2008 Battle of Sadr City wasn't simply one of the most kinetic and violent battles of Operation Iraqi Freedom. From the Soldiers on the street to the Commanding General, the dramatic change in the tactical landscape demanded mental agility, measured emotional response, and poised leadership. The people that died are the ones who failed to update their mental maps to their new situation. Naziha al-Dulaimiwas instrumental in turning the vast slums of eastern Baghdad into a massive public works and housing project that came to be known as Revolution … Feel free to email the site/content author at admin@themilitaryleader.com. U.S. forces launched an ambitious program of reconstruction intended to convince Sadr City's population to transfer its loyalties to the Government of Iraq. Success in this battle solidified Iraqi government control over all of Baghdad and throughout Iraq, creating conditions that enabled the United States to realize contemporary operational objectives in Iraq. Candidate, Pardee RAND Graduate School, by David E. Johnson, M. Wade Markel, Brian Shannon. Drawing upon decades of experience, RAND provides research services, systematic analysis, and innovative thinking to a global clientele that includes government agencies, foundations, and private-sector firms. It’s our comfort zone; it’s what we rest on; it’s where we feel safe. All RAND reports undergo rigorous peer review to ensure high standards for research quality and objectivity. RAND reports present research findings and objective analysis that address the challenges facing the public and private sectors. ... a 26-year-old resident of the Shiite slum of Sadr City where 21 people were killed in the most deadly incident of the day. The eruption of violence threatened to draw U.S. forces into a battle in a closely packed urban area inhabited by an estimated 2.4 million people, many of whom strongly supported the GoI's main antagonist, Moqtada al-Sadr. On April 4, al-Sadr issued a statement calling on his supporters to stop staging demonstration… Please note: I reserve the right to delete comments that are offensive or off-topic. What are its implications for the U.S. Army in terms of the conduct of future urban operations? John Spencer | 03.06.20. The brigade was deployed to Baghdad, Iraq, where it took part in the battle of Sadr City. The urban terrain allowed good use of U.S. technical advantages. Integrating special operations forces into conventional operations achieves synergy. At that time, Sadr City was secured with the use of Strykers from the 1st Squadron, 2d … The digital map erupted red icons all over the city as our units tried to get a handle on the emerging situation. At the time named Revolution City (Arabic: مدينة الثورة‎, romanized: Al-Thawra), it provided housing for Baghdad's urban poor, many of whom had come from the countryside and who had until then lived in appalling conditions. The essential point is that sometimes there is a fate lying just around the corner that we have never, EVER considered, but will have to react to. In late March 2008, a Shi'a uprising in Baghdad's Sadr City district challenged the authority of the Government of Iraq (GoI) at its heart. DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY Office of Foreign Assets Control 31 CFR Chapter V Alphabetical Listing of Blocked Persons, Specially Designated Nationals, Specially Designated Terrorists, Specially Designated Global Terrorists, Foreign Terrorist Organizations, and Specially Designated Narcotics Traffickers AGENCY:. What was the full story of the Battle of Sadr City? Six years this month, such a “new fate” arrived in Sadr City, Iraq. Sadr City was built in Iraq in 1959 by Prime Minister Abdul Karim Qassim in response to grave housing shortages in Baghdad. Enduring success depends on capable indigenous security forces. The fighting has not abated in Sadr City and other Mahdi Army-dominated neighborhoods in northern and eastern Baghdad. He blasted the American occupiers and the security deal being negotiated between the U.S. and al-Maliki's government. About 270 Iraqi men from 18 … However, insurgents still enjoyed considerable freedom of movement making allied forces vulnerable to attack from unsecured portions of Sadr City. We had regular meetings with local leaders and enemy attacks were very low. Posted on 08/08/2004 7:53:56 AM PDT by Diogenesis. The Battle of Sadr City, March–May 2008. Stahl, Leslie, "The Battle of Sadr City," 60 Minutes, October 12, 2008. The leader of the uprising offered a cease-fire, though many individuals kept fighting. The research described in this report was sponsored by the United States Army and conducted by the RAND Arroyo Center. He converted to Islam in 2008, soon after graduating from Oakton High School in Fairfax County. The battle forced units that had been mainly focused on counterinsurgency operations to convert overnight into combined-arms teams of armor and mechanized infantry and engage a large […] In a matter of hours, the tactical situation in Sadr City shifted from low to high-intensity, with engagements akin to the Black Hawk Down depiction of Mogadishu in 1993. Subscribe to the weekly Policy Currents newsletter to receive updates on the issues that matter most. Also available in print form. We were in a comfort zone. Isolating the enemy enables the counterinsurgent to seize the initiative. Johnson, David E., M. Wade Markel, and Brian Shannon, The 2008 Battle of Sadr City: Reimagining Urban Combat. However, the coalition's defeat of Jaish al-Mahdi after six weeks of high-intensity fighting offers important lessons for the U.S. Army as it prepares for future operations. GOTTA SEE THIS-War Endur.Freedom 8/7/04-Basra,Najaf,Sadr City Yahoo, AP, Reuters, and the usual suspects, and many brave photographers | 8/87/04 | President Bush and the valiant US Military with the Armies of Good against the Axis of Evil . Persistent intelligence, surveillance, and reconnaissance; technical intelligence; and precision-strike capabilities enable the attacker to seize the initiative. The resulting month-long fight ultimately reduced the Sadr militia’s combat power and a new 2.4 km wall across the city prevented them from affecting key coalition bases. By Michael R. Gordon New York Times April 22, 2008. Further information: Iraq spring fighting of 2008 and Siege of Sadr City In March 2008, during the Battle of Basra , clashes erupted in Sadr City between the U.S. and the Mahdi Army . Much of the overall insurgency had been neutralized. The RAND Corporation is a nonprofit institution that helps improve policy and decisionmaking through research and analysis. The command deployed additional assets from surrounding areas and blocked the routes in/out of the city, then platoons fought their way north to reclaim a key road. The RAND Corporation is a research organization that develops solutions to public policy challenges to help make communities throughout the world safer and more secure, healthier and more prosperous. Technical capabilities must enable decentralized decisionmaking and small-unit initiative. On desktop computers and some mobile devices, you may need to download an eBook reader to view ePub files. U.S. casualties and collateral damage could have been substantial. Ground maneuver remains indispensable for shaping the battle and achieving decision. The Jaish al Mahdi (JAM) overran GoI outposts in the district and barraged the International Zone with short-range rockets. Johnson, David E., M. 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In late March 2008, a Shi'a uprising in Baghdad's Sadr City district challenged the authority of the Government of Iraq (GoI) at its heart. But there’s a problem in that our mental map doesn’t always align with “the real map”… i.e. Gonzales relates numerous accounts in which people found themselves in survival situations and continued to cling to their old reality…the one where they were still sitting safely in a plane at 30,000 feet…or the one where a bear hadn’t just wrecked their campsite leaving them stranded. Dozens of people were killed by a car bomb in a crowded food market in the Sadr City section of Baghdad on Wednesday. Sadr City. We had regular meetings with local leaders and enemy attacks were very low. But as the saying goes, the enemy gets a vote…and Muqtada al-Sadr’s vote came at the end of March, when he unleashed an hourly barrage of rocket, mortar, IED, RPG, and gunfire attacks on the Green Zone and units in the area. The next day thousands of Iraqis rallied outside the offices of Al-Hawza in support of the newspaper. Conditions on the Eve of the Battle of Sadr City, Analysis of Contemporary Arabic Language Sources on the Battle of Sadr City. By March 2008, the urban enclave of 2 million people in northeastern Baghdad had quieted down to the point that just two companies of Stryker Infantry were needed to contain it. We were given the job of driving up and down the roads in our very heavy armored vehicles. As the fighting started on April 4, 2004, militiamen ambushed a 1st Cavalry Division patrol and Iraqi policewere expelled from three police stations in Sadr City. Even as American and Iraqi troops are fighting to establish control of the Sadr City section of this capital, the Iraqi government's program to restore basic services like electricity, sewage and trash collection is lagging, jeopardizing the effort to win over the area's wary residents. Disclosure of Material Connection: Some of the links contained on this site are “affiliate links.” This means if you click on the link and purchase the item, I will receive an affiliate commission. A U.S. soldier makes a retina scan of an Iraqi man in the Shiite enclave of Sadr city, Baghdad, Iraq, on Monday, June 9, 2008. On March 28, the US overseer of Iraq, Paul Bremer, ordered the 60-day closure of Al-Hawza, a newspaper published by Muqtada al-Sadr’s group, on the charges of inciting violence against the occupation. RAND's publications do not necessarily reflect the opinions of its research clients and sponsors. Instead, through innovative tactics combining high-technology airborne surveillance and strike, elements of siege warfare and vigorous exploitation through civil military operations, coalition forces managed to subdue the uprising with minimum loss to U.S. forces and the civilian population. Six years ago, such a “new fate” arrived in Sadr City, Iraq. Leaders also need to accept that unseen “realities” exist and have momentum along tracks that will ultimately intersect with and affect the organization. at the 2008 Battle of Sadr City between the militia of radical Shi’ite cleric Moqtada al-Sadr and the military forces of Iraq and the US conducting the operation in concert. Some might say that we had reached “steady-state operations,” and a routine of stability. The 2008 Battle of Sadr City, which took place in Baghdad nearly 15 months after the beginning of the U.S. "surge" in Iraq, has received relatively little scholarly attention. I was one of the officers assigned to those two companies at the time. the real world. By March 2008, the urban enclave of 2 million people in northeastern Baghdad had quieted down to the point that just two companies of Stryker Infantry were needed to contain it. The last remaining insurgency fighters came under increasingly destructive attack. I only recommend products or services I use personally and believe will add value to my readers. This new paradigm can help the Army focus on what capabilities it will need in the future for such operations. Insurgents, their freedom of movement rapidly disappearing, were drawn into battle on disadvantageous terms. On desktop computers and some mobile devices, you may need to download an eBook reader to view mobi files. The 2008 battle for Sadr City offers a different model, in which the challenges were even more formidable than those posed by Grozny and Fallujah. Where two companies once occupied, 14 companies now stood. In late March 2008, a Shi0́9a uprising in Baghdad0́9s Sadr City district challenged the authority of the Government of Iraq (GoI) at its heart. “It has turned from a city into a field of battle.” Amazon Kindle is the most popular reader for mobi files. Calibre is an example of a free and open source e-book library management application. Six years this month, such a “new fate” arrived in Sadr City, Iraq. The authors present the first full operational analysis of the battle and distill insights and lessons that can inform a broader understanding of urban operations, particularly those conducted as part of irregular warfare. I am disclosing this in accordance with the Federal Trade Commission’s 16 CFR, Part 255: “Guides Concerning the Use of Endorsements and Testimonials in Advertising.”, Getting Your Mental Map Realigned (Sadr City 2008), Unit Leader Development Products & Resources, Realigning Your Mental Map: Sadr City, 2008, Telling the World How Smart We Are (Habit Series #6), The Principles of Military Leadership [Day 3]. Of operations with concrete T-walls, providing access control operate like a separate nation, where it took part the. Was also one of vast importance to future policy and leadership Brian Shannon, the 2008 Battle of Sadr.. Najaf, Sadr City, Iraq around Sadr City get a handle on the emerging.... 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