530 BC -. https://www.npolar.no/en/ The icebreaker Kronprins Haakon, delivered in 2018 is used in both the Arctic and Antarctic. Scott had been beaten to the Pole, but his troubles were only beginning. Explorers continued to venture to Antarctica in the years after Amundsen and Scott’s legendary race, but it was not until 1956 that an expedition once again stood on the South Pole. 1962 – A nuclear power plant is installed at McMurdo Base by the US Navy. The men planted the Norwegian flag, smoked celebratory cigars and posed for snapshots, but they only remained for a few days before beginning the arduous trek back to their base camp. 1909. South Pole. Antarctica is the biggest wilderness on earth and still the least visited of all the continents. 1978 – The first human born in Antarctica is from an Argentine base. 400 pages. Shakelton immediately set off in a Norwegian whaler to rescue his crew from Elephant Island. Mawson and Mertz began the trek back to the base. The incident caused a spill of 160 thousand gallons of gasoline and oil, creating a slick covering 62 square miles. He was one of the greatest figures in the field of polar exploration. National Geographic. Exploration of the South Pole . In 1911, British explorer Robert Falcon Scott and Norwegian explorer Roald Amundsen both aimed to be the first to reach the South Pole. “Great God!” Scott wrote in his diary. 1821 – On February 7, Captain John Davis a sealer from Connecticut and his crew from the American sealing ship, Cecilia, claim to have landed on the Antarctic continent for less than a hour at Hughes Bay (64°01’S) looking for seals. Norwegian Roald Amundsen leads a five man expedition that reaches the South Pole for … 2004. Scott sets out in the spring for the South Pole. No one had ever crossed this mountainous region. Shakelton establishes British Antarctic Expedition base on Ross Island from the Nimrod. 1898 – The first party to live through the winter trapped in pack-ice at the Antarctic Peninsula under a Belgian Adrien de Gerlache and the Belgica expedition. 1912 – Robert Falcon Scott, Bill Wilson, Henry “Birdie” Bowers, Edward Edgar Evans, and Lawrence ‘Titus’ Oates reach the South Pole one month after Amundsen’s team, and discover the Norwegian flag. Finally, on October 20, 1911, conditions improved enough for his five-man team to begin their dash to the Pole. Amundsen leaves a letter for Scott and returns to his base at the Bay of Whales without mishap and heads his crew to Australia. 1 November 1911 Scott’s main party sets out. Despite being a featureless flat bit of ice and snow surrounded by identical looking featureless ice and snow for hundreds of miles (at least) in all directions, the South Pole was a very sought after geographical prize, after several attempt to reach it, Norwegian Roald Amundsen arrived there first as part of a team of 5 men with 18 dogs pulling sledges on the 14th of December 1911. In the early 1910s, explorers Roald Amundsen and Robert Falcon Scott engaged in a frantic, and ultimately tragic, race to be the first man to reach the South Pole. 1820 – On January 28, Russian Admiral Fabian Gottlieb von Bellingshausen and his deputy Mikhail Petrovich Lazarev approached the Antarctic coast at the coordinates 69o21’28”S and 2o14’50”W. 1838 – 1842 American lieutenant Charles Wilkes proves that Antarctica is a continent by identifying over 1500 miles of coast along the area now named Wilkes Land. 1940 – Little America III base is set up at the Bay of Whales under Richard Bryd. Watch more in this film series. After spending the early part of 1911 laying down advance caches of food and supplies for their polar journeys, Amundsen and Scott’s expeditions took shelter and spent several months waiting out the dark and frigid Antarctic winter. Since I was one of the five who, on that December afternoon, took part in this unveiling, it has fallen to my lot to write -- the history of the South Pole. Antarctica - Antarctica - History: Many nations were involved in the discovery and early exploration of Antarctica. He had been to Antarctica in the late 19th century, and later became the first man in history to sail the treacherous Northwest Passage linking the Atlantic and Pacific Oceans. Twice a week we compile our most fascinating features and deliver them straight to you. Bowers took this photograph, using a piece of string to operate the camera shutter. Large areas of coastline and hinterland are mapped. Scott, his friend Dr. Edward Wilson and another man Henry Bowers gamely continued the journey for another few days, but temperatures continued to plunge, and they were later caught in a blizzard only 11 miles away from one of their supply depots. Studying astronomy the ancient Greeks theorized of the southern region of earth. “Another hard grind in the afternoon and five miles added,” British explorer Robert Falcon Scott wrote in his diary. Fuch’s team met up with Hillary’s Team and continues on to the Ross Sea. After the continent's discovery in 1820, it … “It seems a pity, but I do not think I can write more.”, Robert Falcon Scott’s Pole party of his ill-fated expedition, from left to right at the Pole: Oates (standing), Bowers (sitting), Scott (standing in front of Union Jack flag on pole), Wilson (sitting), Evans (standing). Scott employed a combination of sled dogs, Manchurian ponies and even a few motorized tractors. Understanding mathematics and symmetry the Greeks theorized Antarktikos meaning “opposite of north”. 1913 – Australian Douglas Mawson and six other are forced to spend a second winter at Cape Denison in Commonwealth Bay. History; South Pole; South Pole. 1911 – Amundsen party set up their base at the Bay of Whales that was 69 miles (105 km) closer to the pole than Scott’s base on Ross Island. The Treaty comes into operation in 1961 and guarantees freedom of access and scientific studies in all areas south of 60 degrees latitude. This is generally referred to as the beginning of the HEROIC ERA of Antarctic exploration, dating from Adrien de Gerlache 's BELGIAN ANTARCTIC EXPEDITION aboard BELGICA in 1897, extending to Richard Byrd 's FIRST BYRD ANTARCTIC EXPEDITION in 1928. 1831 – The North Magnetic Pole had been discovered. A member of Robert Falcon Scott's Terra Nova expedition to the South Pole stands on a water-worn iceberg near Mt. Pack ice prevented the whaler from reaching Elephant Island. Support party held by Sir Edmund Hillary led the way from Ross Island and reaches the South Pole with only 20 gallons (91 liters) of fuel remaining. Seventeen of the original 52 dogs would make it to the Pole, and 12 made it back. There are no survivors. Scott got underway just a few days later on November 1. Amundsen, meanwhile, relied solely on skis and sled dogs to cross the tundra. There's no doubt that Antarctica is an extreme frontier. 15 October 1911 Amundsen sets out to reach the South Pole with five men, four sledges and 52 dogs, travelling to pre-prepared depots and killing dogs for food as they go. Ross founded and named Cape Adare after Viscount Adare. On November 17, American Sealer Nathaniel Palmer, captain of the ship Hero, sights the Antarctic continent and is the first American to set foot on the Antarctic continent. This is the first time the Antarctic continent was crossed. Icebreakers are used for the first time. The ship carried tourists and scientists, and was evacuated before it sank. Amundsen plants the Norwegian Flag on the South Pole. Although exploration of Antarctica began in the mid-1800's, attempted exploration of the South Pole did not occur until 1901. 1935 – The first woman to set foot in the Antarctic continent was Caroline Mikkelsen, the wife of a Norwegian whaling captain, when she steps ashore at Vestfold Hills. 1895 – The first landing site ever on the continent was in January at Cape Adare from the ship, Antarctic, led by Norwegian Henryk Johann Bull, Carsten Borchgrevink, and Leonard Kristensen. 1902 – Robert Scott, Edward Wilson, and Ernest Shakelton leave McMurdo Sound for the first real attempt to reach the South Pole. 1912: On January 18, Robert F. Scott, Edward Wilson, Edgar Evans and Lawrence Oates reach the South Pole.Unfortunately, Amundsen had already been there and left a flag marking the spot. Shakelton and his crew of five men crossed the mountainous region with no supplies and no mountain climbing equipment and reached the Stromness whaling station. 1957- International Geophysical Year begins with Antarctica as the main study. American explorer Richard E. Byrd became the first person to fly over the South Pole, in 1926, and the Amundsen–Scott South Pole Station was established thirty years later. Despite having won the race without losing a single man, he was in many ways overshadowed by Scott, whose doomed march had made him a hero in his native Britain. They were now less than 80 miles from the finish line, but a single question still loomed over their progress: would they be the first group of men in history to reach the South Pole, or the second? The machines quickly broke down, however, and his ponies grew weak in the cold and had to be shot. 1979 – Air New Zealand DC 10 crashes in to Mt. After numerous attempts to walk and haul their lifeboats to open water the 28 men of the Endurance are forced to camp on floating ice for five months eventually made camp and waited until the pack ice broke up in the spring before taking the boats to Elephant Island. The ship was blown away from its moorings and the shore party was left with no supplies, except what remained in the hut from previous expeditions. On January 1908, Mawson and his team raised the British Flag over the geomagnetic South Pole. With frost bite, ‘Titus Oates” realizes that he was slowing the party down, and walked out of his tent never to be seen again. (Credit: Imagno/Getty Images), The Norwegian expedition enjoyed a few clear advantages in what newspapers were soon calling the “race for the South Pole.” Amundsen set up his camp on the Ross Ice Shelf in the Bay of Whales, a point that was over sixty miles closer to the Pole than Scott’s home base in McMurdo Sound. 1902 – Robert Scott, Edward Wilson, and Ernest Shakelton leave McMurdo Sound for the first real attempt to reach the South Pole. South Pole: A Narrative History of the Exploration of Antarctica. They become the first to fly over both poles in an airplane. Before leaving on the expedition, he had vowed “to reach the South Pole and to secure for the British Empire the honor of this achievement.”, Scott’s mission was made all the more urgent by the knowledge that another explorer was seeking the Pole. Under the leadership of Shakeltons second in command, Frank Wild, most of the party spent 105 days of the bitter winter living under upturned boats eating seal meat. Roald Amundsen was a 39-year-old Norwegian who had spent most of his life venturing to the far corners of the globe. The South Pole, also known as the Geographic South Pole or Terrestrial South Pole, is one of the two points where Earth's axis of rotation intersects its surface. Molluscs, cormorants, penguins and other species were the fatal victims of that disaster. The Treaty states that Antarctica will be used for peaceful and scientific purposes. Shakelton and a crew of 5 from Elephant Island navigated 800 miles (1300 km) in an 18 foot (6 m) boat called the James Caird to South Georgia, a whaling port. 1965 – Antarctica tourism for the public begins. South Pole exploration: Sir Ernest Shackleton In 1907, Ernest Shackleton embarked on an expedition to the South Pole aboard his ship Nimrod . Ross determined the approximate position of the South Magnetic Pole but was unable to reach it. In the last 100 years since Antarctic exploration began still only around 350 people have ever made the overland journey from the coast of Antarctica to the South Pole. Among those in the party were Raold Amundsen, Dr. Frederick Cook, and Henry Arctowski. The nuclear power plant has a history of fire, radiation leakage, and shutdowns, until it is finally decommissioned in 1972. He was almost successful, falling just 97 miles short. The Norwegians took an untested route that forced them navigate a frozen maze of crevasses, mountains and glaciers, but by early December, they had penetrated farther into the heart of Antarctica than anyone in history. He was a veteran explorer who had, among his many credits, pioneered the Northwest Passage. It was mid-January 1912, and the 43-year-old Royal Navy officer was nearly 800 miles into a journey to one of the last unexplored places on the globe: the geographic South Pole. The constellation Ursa Major – the great bear – found in the northern hemisphere was also referred by the Greeks as Arktos meaning “of the north”. 1947 – United States Navy organizes operation High jump, bringing 4,000 men, 13 ships, and 23 aircraft to Antarctica. READ MORE: The Stunning Survival Story of Ernest Shackleton's Antarctic Expedition, Captain Roald Engelbregt Gravning Amundsen at the South pole under the Norwegian flag. This expedition is to lay the foundation for modern oceanography. Two years later, he died in a plane crash while searching for a missing explorer over Norway’s Svalbard archipelago. HISTORY reviews and updates its content regularly to ensure it is complete and accurate. The South Pole was exploration's last great prize, and was widely expected to be won by the British. Roald Amundsen, Norwegian explorer who was the first to reach the South Pole, the first to make a ship voyage through the Northwest Passage, and one of the first to cross the Arctic by air. During this expedition Mawson overcame starvation, poisoning, blizzards, and innumerable falls into gaping crevasses as he struggled back alone to the Winter Quarters at Cape Denison, following the deaths of his sledging companions Xavier Mertz and Belgrade Ninnis. With nothing but snow and ice as far as the eye can see, standing on the polar plateau can feel both mind opening and mind numbing at the same time. He is the first person to winter in the interior of the continent, but almost dies of carbon monoxide poisoning. Exhausted by weeks of marching into headwinds of at least 30 knots and in -40°F (-40°C) temperatures, Scott and four companions died when they became trapped in a blizzard. Amundsen, born in Borge, near Oslo, “This is an awful place and terrible enough for us to have labored to it without the reward of priority.”. Amundsen.”, On December 14th the arctic explorer Ronald Amundsen was the first, who reached during his antarctic expedition 1910-1912 the South Pole. His 34-man shore party was tasked with conducting scientific research and collecting wildlife and rock samples, but Scott, who had previously led an Antarctic mission in 1902, was also determined to make a run at the Pole. 1915 – Ernest Shakelton was set on crossing the Antarctic continent, but after being trapped in pack ice, is forced to abandon the Endurance, after it is crushed in the Weddell Sea after nine months. Robert Scott’s second expedition returns to Ross Island. Learn more about Amundsen in this article. It took seventeen days in a freezing hurricane to reach South Georgia. Terribly discouraged after a tortuous journey, all members perish on the return trip. 1989 Argentina ship Bahía Paraíso runs aground and sinks just outside Palmer Research Station on Anvers Island. 1905-7 – International Geophysical Congress, meeting in London, decides to make Antarctica the main target of future exploration. He was able to chart unknown territory, including the giant ice shelf the size of Texas that is currently named after him. Inside you will find extensive biographical data on the early explorers in addition to significant statistics and examples of the philately of Antarctica and the sub-Antarctic islands. 1910–1912 – Roald Amundsen's South Pole expedition – On 14 December 1911, reached the South Pole (90° S) 1910–1913 – Terra Nova Expedition – On 17 January 1912, Robert Falcon Scott , reached the South Pole (90° S) 1830 – A race of expeditions begins to the magnetic poles. 1916 – The Ross sea support party fared worse. Even before our conception of the earth's form had taken definite shape, voyages to the South began. Amundsen and Scott relied on vastly different forms of transport during their journeys. Undeterred, Amundsen continued his wandering and eventually explored the Arctic both at sea and in a dirigible, which he used to reach the North Pole in 1926. This site is dedicated to the stamps, postal history and heroic explorers of the great White Continent. Ernest Shackleton leads expedition to within 156km / 97mls of the South Pole, turns back after supplies are exhausted. Their ship the Belgica became ice-bound off the Antarctic Peninsula, and they were forced to spend 13 months drifting in pack ice. With little food and a makeshift tent they were force to eat the remaining huskies to survive. In 1909, Amundsen had announced a new expedition to navigate the ice floe-riddled waters of the Arctic to the North Pole. 1907-1909 Ernest Shackleton leads the second British Antarctic Expedition on the Nimrod. Mawson and six others who had stayed behind to wait for Mawson and his men endured a second winter at the windiest place in the world before finally being rescued the following season. Mawson became very ill of Vitamin A poisoning from eating husky dog livers. On December 14, 1911, after 57 days, Admundsen’s team reached the geographic South Pole with four companions and 18 of the 59 dogs. . The British team had reached their destination late in the Antarctic summer, and temperatures were dropping rapidly. The Stunning Survival Story of Ernest Shackleton's Antarctic Expedition, When Hitler Sent a Secret Expedition to Antarctica in a Hunt for Margarine Fat. Not a single life was lost. 1492 – Map makers have a mythical continent on the map described as “Terra Australis Incognita” (The Unknown Southern Land) placed exactly where Antarctica is today. 1910 – Norwegian Roald Amundsen was suppose to head for the North Pole, but took his ship to the South Pole instead. The world’s southernmost point has been continuously inhabited ever since, and its two earliest pioneers are now honored in the name of its permanent research facility: the Amundsen-Scott South Pole Station. After sending the dogs back to camp, he and his team were forced to spend much of their journey man-hauling their heavy supply sledges on foot. Create a free website or blog at WordPress.com. On 9 January 1909, Shackleton, Frank Wild, Eric Marshall and Jameson Adams come within 97 miles of the South Pole, but the return trip almost costs them their lives. 1934 – Richard Bryd begins his lone winter sojourn at his base 123 miles inland from the Bay of Whales. Scott’s five-man party had already endured brushes with blizzards and frostbite during their trek. Britain’s Vivian Fuchs team converted Ferguson farm tractors to cross the Antarctic from the Weddell Sea in the Fuchs Commonwealth Trans-Antarctic Expedition. He reached the South Pole on Jan 17, 1912, a month after Norwegian explorer Roald Amundsen did. (Credit: Public Domain). January, Australian Douglas Mawson reaches the South Magnetic Pole. In 1986, she became the first woman to journey into the North Pole on a dogsled. (Credit: Bettmann / Getty Images), Scott’s frozen ordeal had begun over a year earlier, when his ship Terra Nova had arrived on Ross Island in Antarctica’s McMurdo Sound. At 82 degrees south, within 450 miles (720 km) they are forced to return home. “I am just going outside and may be some time,” he said before leaving the group’s tent and vanishing. READ MORE: When Hitler Sent a Secret Expedition to Antarctica in a Hunt for Margarine Fat. 1911. The remaining party was rescued by the Aurora in January 1917. After a third attempt, with a Chilean steamer, Yelcho, the whole team was eventually rescued. Parties from Britain, Germany, and Sweden are organized. After wintering on Ross Island, Ernest Shakelton and a team of three others sledged within 97 nautical miles (155 km) of the South Geographic Pole. The severely frostbitten Lawrence Oates followed a month later after sacrificing himself in a blizzard to avoid slowing down the team. 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